The Significance of Sanskrit
In a way the name Sanskrit had given way to large
misuse by the religion. Sanskrit is used for both the Vedic and
the Puranic languages though they differ considerably. It bears
the relation as between Latin and English.
"By Ancient Sanskrit we mean the oldest known
form of Sanskrit. The simple name 'Sanskrit' generally refers
to Classical Sanskrit, which is a later, fixed form that
follows rules laid down by a grammarian around 400 BC. Like
Latin in the Middle Ages, Classical Sanskrit was a scholarly
lingua franca which had to be studied and mastered.
Ancient Sanskrit was very different.
It was a natural, vernacular language, and has
come down to us in a remarkable and extensive body of poetry."
the Ancient Sanskrit is referred to here is now
called Vedic which is a direct recognition under pressure to
recognize it as different from Sanskrit language by the Hindus.
This is same as the Persian Indo- European language of the
Zorostrians which is the language used in Zend Avesta or very
close to it. In sharp contrast Sanskrit is of recent origin.
Archealogical and Linguistic studies indicates that the language
of Sanskrit came into existence only by the second century AD.
Ujjayini (Ujjain) became a center of Sanskrit learning and was
taken as meridian by Indian astronomers.
The word Sanskrit means completed, refined,
perfected. Sam (together) + krtam (created). The Vedic form of
Sanskrit is a close descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the
reconstructed root of all later Indo-European languages. Vedic
Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian
branch of the Indo-European family. It is very closely related to
Avestan, the language of Zoroastrianism. The genetic
relationship of Sanskrit to modern European languages and
classical Greek and Latin can be seen in cognates like mother and
matr or father and pitr. Other
interesting links are to be found between Sanskritic roots and
Persian, present in such a striking example as the generic term
for 'land' which in Sanskrit is sthaan and in
("8 Chapter Grammar").
European scholarship in Sanskrit, initiated by Heinrich Roth and
Johann Ernest Hanxleden, led to the proposal of the Indo-European
language family by Sir William Jones, and thus played an important
role in the development of Western linguistics. Indeed,
linguistics (along with phonology, etc.) first arose among Indian
grammarians who were attempting to catalog and codify Sanskrit's
rules. Modern linguistics owes a great deal to these grammarians,
and to this day, key terms for compound analysis are taken from
Sanskrit. The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pānini's c. 500
The Indian Scripts are originated from two
early sources Ė one from the Semitic Languages and the other from
the Aryan (Indo-European) Languages. The early scripts of Brahmi
originated from the Semitic Languages from the 7th
centaury BC while the Kharosti originated from the Indo-European
Languages about the same time. It is interesting to note the
Sanskrit Script as used today was actually an offshoot of the
Semitic influence rather than Aryan. Certainly there must have
been mutual influence and interaction during the development. This
interaction between the two major ethnic languages can be traced
back to the Persian invasion of Israel. Ahasaures, also known as
Artexerxes was probably the husband of Queen Esther. From then on
the relation between the Aryan and the Semitic people were very
cordial. This led to the mutual influence that we see in the
script and languages.
Asokan Rock and pillar edicts covers most of the North and Central
India and were written in the regional languages.
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka,
from Kandahar - Afghan National Museum.
Vedas were originally written using the Grantha
and Nagiri Scripts. Since the earliest evidence of Grantha Scripts
are found only around 5th c AD, the Vedas in Sanskrit
could not have been written anytime earlier. It may be argued that
Vedas could have been in oral form. This is a conjecture. People
certainly have been philosophical even without a written document.
But they are not crystallized until they are written down.
The first epigraphic evidence of Sanskrit
is seen in 150 AD and this inscription is in the Brahmi
script. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1982).
From the fifth century A.D. classical
Sanskrit is seen to be the dominant language in the
The use of Sanskrit as a language was first
observed in the ramayana (Sundarakanda, 30/17-18).
Shyam Rao makes the following clear statements
in regards to Sanskrit in his Anti-Sanskrit Scripture' by Shyam
Rao, published by Sudrastan Books, Jabalpur, 1999 (free from any
Copyright). It was thence reprinted in Dalitstan Journal, Volume
1, Issue 2 (Oct. 1999)
Vedas - The word `Sanskrit' does not
occur anywhere in the Vedas. Not a single verse mentions this
word as denoting a language.
Chandasa - The Vedic language was
referred to as Chandasa even by Panini himself [`Indo-Aryan
and Hindi', S. K. Chatterji, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay,
Calcutta-12, p. 63 ], and not as `Sanskrit'.
Buddha - The Buddha was advised to
translate his teachings into the learned man's tongue - the `Chandasa'
standard [ Chatterji., p. 64 ], there is no mention of any
`Sanskrit'. The Buddha refused, preferring the Prakrits. There
is not even a single reference in any contemporary Buddhist
texts to the word `Sanskrit'. This shows that Sanskrit did not
even exist at the time of the Buddha and that the people at
that period, even the Brahmins themselves, were not aware of
themselves as speaking `Sanskrit'; they referred to their
language as `Chandasa'.
Ramayana - The word `Sanskrit' occurs
for the first time as referring to a language in the Ramayana
: "In the latter [Ramayana] the term `samskrta' "formal,
polished", is encountered, probably for the first time with
reference to the language" [ Encyclopaedia Brittanica 22 `Langs',
p. 616 ] It is to be noted that extant versions of the
Ramayana date only to the centuries AD.
Asokan Script - The first inscriptions
in Indian history are in Prakrit and not in Sanskrit. These
are by the Mauryan King Ashoka (c. 273 BC - 232 BC ), and
number over 30. They date to the 4th century BC. The script
utilised is not `sacred' Devanagari, and the language is not
`Mother' Sanskrit. They are mostly in the Brahmi script, while
2 inscriptions are in Kharoshtri. They are in various Prakrits
and some in Afghanistan are in Greek and Aramaic
[`Inscriptions: Their Literary Value I', R. Basak, `Cultural
Heritage of India' vol. 5, p. 390-406,. p. 390-1 ]. In fact
all inscriptions in India were in Prakrit till the early
centuries AD : "The earlier inscriptions up to the 1st century
AD, were all in Prakrit" -- [`Prakrit Language and
Literature', Cultural Heritage of India vol. 5, 164-183, A. N.
Upadhye., p. 164 ]
Satavahana Inscriptions - The
Satavahanas, the first historical dynasty of the Deccan, also
used a Prakrit language. There is no usage of Sanskrit. The
Nagarjunikonda insrciptions are by the Satvahana king Vijaya
Satakarni in the early 3rd cetnruy AD & end with the Ikshvaku
Rudrapurusadatta who ruled for 11 years in the second quarter
of the 4th century. Most of the large number of inscriptions
are in Prakrit and only a few belonging to Ehuvulu Santamula
are in Sanskrit (he ruled during the last 24 years of the 3rd
to the early 4th century AD ) but even most of his
inscriptions are in Prakrit and those which are in Sasnkrit
are heavily influenced by Prakrit [ Bhatt., p. 408 ftn. 46 ].
The Nanaghat cave inscriptions in Poona
distt. are in Prakrit and are the work of the Satavahana
Satakarni I. They have been dated to the first half of the 1st
century BC. The contemporary relgiion of this region was
Vedic. Indra and Vasudev are mentioned as the Vedic gods then
worshipped [ Basak, p. 395 ]. The later cave inscriptions of
Nasik in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD are in the local Prakrit
[ Basak, p. 395 ]. Thus, although the Vedic religion was
followed in the Satavahana regions, Sanksrit was not in use.
Gandhari - Even Gandhari existed prior
to Sanskrit. The Pali Dhammapada in Gandhari was discovered at
Khotan in Kharoshtri script. It dates to the 1st or 2nd
century AD. A Gandhari insrcription was discovered on a copper
casket containing relics of the Lord Sakyamuni [ Basak, p. 393
Kharavela's Kalinga Inscription -
Kharavela's Kalingan inscription of the 1st century BC were in
a Prakrit of the east indian type. Interseting is the first
mention of the word Bharatavarsha in an inscription. Kharavela
is described as invading Bharatavarsha, which then evidently
denoted only North India [ Basak, p. 393 ].
First Sanskrit Inscription : 150 AD -
The earliest inscription in Sanskrit is by the Saka
Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman at Junagarh in Gujarat dated to AD
150. However, even here several of the words are wrong
according to Sanskrit grammatical rules, some words show
Prakrit influence and a few are un-Paninian [ Basak 397-8 ].
This inscription is several centuries later than the earliest
Prakrit inscriptions, and are the creation of Sakas, not Arya
In fact all inscriptions in India were in Prakrit (vernacular
languages) till the early centuries AD .
It is evident that there was no Sanskrit before
150 AD. Chandasa was renamed as Sanskrit inorder to claim
predating Sanskrit writings.
Alexander Harris explains it as follows: http://www.appiusforum.com/sanskrit.html
"The stone pillar inscription of Samudra Gupta
(AD 330 to 380) written in Sanskrit and a late Brahmi script
called the Gupta script is an undated inscription incised on an
Asokan pillar at Allahabad. Composed by Harisena, a
commander-in-chief of the king it describes elaborately the moral,
intellectual and military achievements of this king. This
inscription possibly dates 350 AD.
A key evidence often presented in the dating of
Sanskrit is Patanjaliís Vyakarana - Mahabhasya (Great Commentary).
The Mahabhasya is both a defense of the grammarian Panini against
his chief critic and detractor Katyayana and a refutation of some
of Paniniís aphorisms. Patanjali is dated anywhere from 2nd c BC
to 5th c AD.
On Patanjaliís date, the composition of the
Mahabhasya and its early tradition, Joshi and Roodbergen write,
It is nearly unanimously agreed that
Patanjali has lived around 140 BC. But as stated by Winternitz,
we are not in a position to confirm that this is the correct
date. The question largely depends on the other question,
namely, whether Patanjali was the author of the examples he
quotes. According to Tarn, there is nothing conclusive in
Patanajliís assumed date, precisely because his grammatical
examples are, or in any particular case may be, not necessarily
his own composition but traditional examples. Nor are the dates
assigned to Panini and Katyayana in the fourth and third century
BC more than a working hypothesis, that is, ornate guesswork.
The spread of
Sanskrit South is first evidenced by the Talagunda stone pillar
inscription of Kadamba Kakusthavarman13 in the Shimoga District,
Karnataka dated between 455 and 470 AD. It is written in late
southern Brahmi inscribed in the reign of Santivarman (450 to 470
AD). It is a postthumous record of Kakusthavarman.
Sanskrit then spreads in the South evidenced by
the inscriptions in Early Grantha, dating from the 5th to 6th c.
AD on copper plates and stone monuments from the kingdom of the
Pallavas near Chennai (Madras). The Grantha alphabet, which
belongs to the writing system of southern India, was developed in
the 5th c. AD to mainly write Sanskrit. From the fifth century
A.D. classical Sanskrit is seen to be the dominant language in the
inscriptions which indicates that Sanskrit was replacing the
Further more research on the development of
writing scripts in India certainly puts a rather late date on
these Sanskrit writings."
Earlier documents used Pali and Prakrit. Asoka
who took every care to make his messages intelligible to the
common man used all existing scripts and languages. These 3rd
Centaury inscriptions do not include Sanskrit. It included Prakrit,
Greek and Aramaic. But no Sanskrit is found because it was not in
existence at that time.
Asokaís Edict in Prakrit
Sanskrit was developed out of Prakrit and other
existing languages during the interval of 100 AD to 150 AD "The
first evidence of classical Sanskrit is found as an inscription
dating around A.D.150 in the Brahmi script. It records the repair
of a dam originally built by Chandragupta Maurya, and also
contains a panegyric in verse, which can be regarded as the first
literary composition in classical Sanskrit. It is at Girnar in
Kathiawar and was inscribed by Rudradamana, the Saka Satrap of
Ujjayini, on the same rock on which the Fourteen Rock Edicts of
Asoka were also found.
It is significant that Rudradamana employed
classical Sanskrit in a region where about four hundred years
before him Asoka had used only Prakrit. This definitely proves
that in the second century AD Sanskrit was replacing the dialects.
Even so the language did not replace Prakrit everywhere, but it
continued to be used in inscriptions for something like one
hundred years or even more after this date. However, from the
fifth century A.D. classical Sanskrit is seen to be the dominant
language in the inscriptions. ( Hinduism, by Nirad C. Chaudhuri,
Oxford University Press, USA, 1979.)
"The earliest epigraphic evidence on languages
employed in India comes from the inscriptions of Asoka inscribed
in third century B.C. Asoka took care that his messages were
intelligible to all and he used a particular kind of Prakrit. Even
more remarkable is the fact, which has been recently discovered,
that for those people who at the time lived in Afghanistan, his
message was given in Greek as well as Aramaic. One of the Greek
inscriptions is a translation of the Kalinga Edict, and the Greek
of the inscriptions is not inferior in style to the classical
Greek of Greek literature. In such circumstances neglect of
Sanskrit by Asoka, if the language was in use, would be contrary
to all his practice.1 So, the absence of Sanskrit in
his inscriptions indicates that it did not exist at that time, as
otherwise he would have certainly used it." Dr. Alexander Harris:
Significance of Sanskrit.
Thus apart from portions of the Veda which
were not written in Sanskrit, all other Vedas, Upanishads,
Brahmanas and Puranas etc were written down later than 100 AD
at liberal estimate. They must have been written down much
later in actual fact. A more realistic estimate will be around
6th Centaury AD.
"The pious view is that the Vedas are eternal and
uncreated and exist essentially as sound. More conventional, but
still pious, scholarship may still exaggerate the antiquity of the
Vedas, sometimes claiming they go back to 10,000 BC or earlier.
Now, however, it looks like even the oldest parts of the Rg Veda
do not antedate the arrival of the Arya in India, although the
gods and elements of the stories are older, since they are
attested with Iranian peoples and the Mitanni, with parallels in
Greek and Latin mythology." (Kelly Ross)
Panini's Astadhyayi is the main Sanskrit
grammar book. The name Panini came to stand for the unknown author
who started the grammar writing process. In a later period,
Astadhyayi became even more authoritative through the
contributions of Vartikakara Vararuchi (or Katyayana) and
Bhasyakara (the commentator) Patanjali. So the complete
Astadhyayi is called Trimunivyakarana (contribution of
three grammarians). The rules, which have been compiled in
Astadhyai, are considered to be essential for Sanskrit
language and literature. Besides Astadhyai there are many
other famous grammars in Sanskrit.
Panini was born in Shalatula, a town near to
Attock on the Indus river in present day Pakistan. The dates given
for Panini are pure guesses. Experts give various dates in the
4th, 5th, 6th and 7th century BC and there is also no agreement
among historians about his date or to the extent of the work with
which he is honored.
Panini was a grammarian trying to refine existing
languages (to make a "Sanskrit" language), who gave a
comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and
morphology. Sanskrit was the classical literary language of the
Indian Hindus and Panini is considered the founder of the language
and literature. The word "Sanskrit" means "refined" Ė it is
refined from some raw material language. A treatise called
Astadhyayi (or Astaka ) is Panini's major work. It consists of
eight chapters, each subdivided into quarter chapters. In this
work Panini distinguishes between the language of sacred texts and
the usual language of communication. Panini gives formal
production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar.
Starting with about 1700 basic elements like nouns, verbs, vowels,
consonants he put them into classes. The construction of
sentences, compound nouns etc. is explained as ordered rules
operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to modern
theory. In many ways Panini's constructions are similar to the way
that a mathematical function is defined today.
There is no means of knowing the date of Panini.
The references to existing authors (there are ten of them) does
not give any indication since we donít know about those authors.
that Panini per definition lived at the end of the Vedic period:
he notes a few special rules, marked chandasi ("in the
hymns") to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had
fallen out of use in the spoken language of his time, indicating
that Vedic Sanskrit was already archaic, but still a
comprehensible dialect. An important hint for the dating of Panini
is the occurrence of the word yavanānī (in 4.1.49, either
"Greek woman", or "Greek script") There would have been no
first-hand knowledge of Greeks in Gandhara before the conquests of
Alexander the Great in the 330s BC. Aside from the more abstract
considerations of long-distance artistic or philosophical
influence, the concrete evidence we have for direct contact
between Greeks and Indians is largely limited to the period
between the third century BCE and first century CE.",
('Hellenistic India' by Rachel R. Mairs, University of Cambridge)
He mentions documents which he has referred as Greek (Yavanani).
These would place him after the invasion of Alexander the great
when India came in direct contact with the Greek. He certainly
lived after Buddha because of his referece to Dharma. How long
after that is still a problem. In general the any attempt to date
Panini is just pure conjecture. He could have lived well after the
first century AD. Paniniís dating and the complete grammatical
structure is important in the Sanskrit history since Classical
Sanskrit is normally dated from Panini.
It is not certain whether Panini used writing for
the composition of his work, though it is generally agreed that he
did use a form of writing, based on references to words such as
"script" and "scribe" in his Ashtadhyayi. No one
with any clear understanding of the complexity of his system could
conceive that he worked without written notes using human
notepads. That is exactly what we are asked to do by those who
want to date back Panini. (It is proposed that composed it with
the help of a group of students whose memories served him as
'notepads'. Writing first reappears in India (since the Indus
script) in the form of the Brāhmī script from ca. the 6th century
BC, though these early instances of the Brāhmī script are from
Tamil Nadu in southern India, quite distant from Gandhara in
northwestern India. Since Gandhara was under Persian rule in the
6th century BC, it would also be possible that he used the Aramaic
alphabet (from a variant of which the Brāhmī script is likely a
descendant). Along with the understanding that the first sanskrit
documentation is only from the second century AD we are forced to
date panini in the first or second century AD rather than at the
time of Buddha nor Alexander. One of the Aryan deity was still
Vasudeva as Panini refers and so it was long before the appearance
of the name Krishna which appears only after the third century AD.
Kushan kings took their Indian name from Vasudeva until third
Based on the Archeological, linguistics and
geographical reasons, the most probable date of Panini is soon
after the first century. The Classical Sanskrit starts from there.
At any rate we do not have any Sanskrit documents of work of
earlier dates in existence.
While Paniniís date is unknown we have other
Grammarians whose dates are well established.
Katantravyakarana by Sharvavarman (100 AD),
Chandravyakarana by Chandragomin (c 700 AD),
Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari (700 AD),
Katantrasutravrtti by Durgasingha (900 AD),
Siddhahemachandranushasana by Hemachandra (1050-1100 AD),
Mugdhavodhavyakarana by Vopadeva (1200-1250 AD),
Jaumaravyakarana by Kramadishvara (1200-1250),
Saupadmavyakarana by Padmanabha Datta (1300-1350),
Harinamamrta by Rupagosvami, (c 1470-1559), and
Siddhantakaumudi by Bhattojidiksita (1700 AD)
Thus in among the known authors the dates starts
from 100 AD. Thus we can guess that Panini must have lived
sometime in the later half of the first century which was the time
when Sanskrit began to appear as a language archealogically.
In a similar manner we can look at the Time Line
of Sanskrit Literature which will again give some clue to the
beginning of the Sanskrit as a language.
We leave aside the
legendary authors like Valmiki and Vedavyasa whose dates are
really not fixed by any scientific method.
Asvaghosha (2nd C AD): Buddha charita
Kalidasa (C. 400 A.d.):
Raghuvamsa, Kumara Sambhava
Vishnusharma (c.300-500?): Panchatantra
A.D.): Ravanavaho or Setubandha
Bhatti : (500-650 A.D.) :
Vishakadatta (6th century AD): Mudrarakshasa(
The Demon and the Signet Ring). Devichandragupta and
Kumaradasa : (c: 800
A.D.) : Janakiharana
Abhinanda (9th cent.)
cent.) : Udararaghava
Cakra Kavi (17th cent.) :
Advaita kavi (17th cent.)
Mohana svami : (1608 A.d.
Roac(a,)marahasya or Roac(a,)ma Carita (India Office MS.
of 1970 A.D.)
(1) Bhasa, (2nd cent.
A.d.) (a) Pratima (b) Abhiseka
(2) Bhavabhuti (8th cent.) (a) mahaviracarita (b)
(3) Dinnaga (9th cent.) Kundamala
(4) Murari (900 A.D.) Anargharaghava
(5) Rajesekhara : (10th cent.) Balaramayana
(6) Hanuman: Hanumannataka or Mahanataka
(7) Saktibhadra (9th cent.) Ascaryacudamani
(8) Yasovarman (8th cent.) : Ramabhudaya
(9) Mayuraja : Udattaraghava
(10) Anonymous : (a) Chalit RM (b) Krtya RM (c) Mayapuspaka (d)
(11) Ksirasvami : Abhinavaraghava
(12) Ramachandra (12 cent AD) (a) Raghuvilasa (b)
(13)Jayadeva : Prasanna-Raghava (12 cent.)
(14) Hastimalla : Maithikalyana (1290 A.D.)
(15) Subhata : Dutangada (13 cent.)
(16) Bhaskara Bhatta : Unmattaraghava (14 cent.)
(17) Tryasamisradeva : Ramabhyudaya (15 cent.)
(18) Mahadeva : Adbhutaramayana (17 cent.)
(19) Ramabhadra Diksita : Janakiparinaya
(1) Dharnanjaya :
Raghavapandaviya (12 cent.)
(2) Madhava Bhatta : Raghavapandaviya
(3) haradatta Suri : Radhava-Naisadhiya
(4) Cidambara : Radhavapandaviya-Yadaviya (1600 A.D.)
(5) Gangadhara Mahadevakavi : (18 cent.) Sankatanasanastotra
(6) Tulsidas. (17th century AD) : Sri Ramacharita
Ramakrshna-viloma-Kavya (1540 A.D.)
Venkatesa : Citrabandha
(iv) Amorous Khandakavyas:
(1) Venkatadesika :
Hamsasandesa or Hamsaduta
(2) Rudra Vacaspati : Bhramaraaduta
(3) Vasudeva : Bhramara-sandesa
(4) Anonymous : Kapiduta
(5) Venkatacarya : Kokilasandesa
(6) Jayadeva Ramagita-Govinda
(7) Krsnacandra : Candraduta
(8) Harisankara : Gitaraghava
(9) Prabhakara : Gitaraghava
(10) Haryacarya : Janakigita
(11) Harinatha : Ramavilasa
(12) Visvanathasimha Sangita Raghunandana
(13) Visvanatha : Raghavavilasa
(14) Somesvara : Ramasataka
Prose Romance and Campus
Banabhatta. (7th century
AD)Kadambari and Harsha Charita (Ornate prose)
Bhoja : Campu RM (Many
other campus such as Uttararamayana Campu, etc. based on
Uttarakhanda of RM)
Vasudeva : Ramakatha
Dandin. (7th century AD): Kavyadarsa
Somadeva Bhatta. (12th century AD) :Katha
Sarit Sagara (collection of stories)
Again well established writers of Sanskrit all
fall after the first century AD which fits the archealogical time
Yet we have the Hindu scholars fooling the public
with such statements as the one that follows:
Sanskrit, the language of Hindu scriptures, is the oldest and
systematic language in the world. It originated several
thousand years ago, yet
is still used in India.
Here are some other extraordinary claims:
Swami Prakashanand Saraswati
If you look to the history of the
languages of the world you will find that they
went through a number of stages of their development. But the
language was absolutely perfect by all means from the very
beginning. Is it not
enough evidence to understand that it is not man-made and it is a
Because. Its root system of forming a
word and its detailed grammar have no
comparison with any of the languages of the world, and because it
original language, so it is very likely that some of its daily
spoken words could
have been adopted by the other languages which itself is the
Sanskrit is the mother language of the world.
Vedavyasa Reveals the Vedic Chronology of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita
Showing great compassion for all living entities Lord Krishnaís
lila avatar and
literary incarnation Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa composed the
historical treatise known throughout creation as the Mahabharata.
chapters of the Bhagavad-Gita are found in the Bhisma-parva,
chapters 25 to 42
of the Mahabharata and they are the exact words that Lord Krishna
Sanskrit on the battlefield of Kuruksetra, India over five thousand
years ago in
3137 B.C. The proof that the Mahabharata is definitely an authentic
treatise and not allegorical or mythological is verified in the
Bhagavatam, Canto 1, chapter 4, verse 25
But Bhagvata Purana was written in 6/7th C. AD
Bhagavat gita is written in Sanskrit which came into existence
only by 150 AD. So if Krishna lived in 3137 BC he could not
have delivered it in Sanskrit.
The perfection of the pronunciation (of the consonants and
the vowels) and the
uniqueness of the grammar that stays the same in all
the ages from the very
beginning of human civilization and up till today are
such features which prove
that Sanskrit is not manmade; it is a Divine gift to
the people of this world
This will bring us to the subject of the date of
the Upanishads. All Hindu Scriptures other than the Rig Veda are
written in Sanskrit. Essentially therefore they were written down
after the second century AD. The backdating of Sanskrit Upanishads
is a common form of deceit and is taken by many historians without
asking questions and is repeated as though it is a truth. Here are
"The Upanishads (basic scriptures of Hinduism
proper)--records of teachings
and discussions of forest hermits, holy men who
accomplished the task of
transforming Vedism into Hinduism during and after the
6th century B.C.E. The
earliest Upanishads date from 900 to 600 B.C.E., and
represent the first
development of philosophical reflections in Sanskrit
literature. According to a
widespread tradition the oldest Upanishads are the
Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna,
Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya,
Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka,
Svetasvatara, Kaushitaki, and Maitri
Vedic texts, circa seventh-fifth century
The Upanishads are
ancient texts written in Sanskrit, representing the religious
and philosophical tradition of Hinduism and India.
Together with the Aranyakas
the Upanishads are found at the end of the
Vedas, the sacred scriptures of
Hinduism, and thus called Vedantas."
Upanishads (ūpăn'ĭshădz) , speculative and
mystical scriptures of Hinduism,
regarded as the wellspring of Hindu religious and
speculative thought. The
Upanishads, which form the last section of the
literature of the Veda, were
composed beginning c.900 B.C. Of the 112 extant
Upanishads, about 13 date
from the Vedic period and the remainder are later,
"Some Western scholars have fixed the
age of the Upanishads as B.C. 600, or
so. They regard that all of them belong to the pre-Buddhistic
period. This is a
sad mistake indeed. The Upanishads are the knowledge portion, or
Kanda, of the Vedas. They are eternal. They came out of the mouth
Hiranyagarbha, or Brahman. How can one fix the date of the
existed even before the creation of this world." Sri Swami
"As per the Indian tradition Sanskrit
Language has no beginning and no ending.
It is eternal. Self-born God has created it. It is divine. It is
everlasting. It was
first used in Vedas and thereafter it has been the means of
expression in other
Here is the last straw:
The True History and the
Religion of India: A Concise Encyclopedia of ...
Thus every literature that we have in Sanskrit
must invariably fall after the first century.
We cannot refute the claims that there were
literature in India long before that time. But no body can
substantiate any existence of Sanskrit literature before 150 AD.
This is therefore definitely applicable to all Upanishads wherein
we have the new concept of Brahman, Atman and Iswara
None of the Upanishads could have been written in
Sanskrit any time before the first century AD is certain.
The concepts themselves are
embedded in the vocabulary of Sanskrit.